By Ta-Pei Cheng

This complicated undergraduate textual content introduces Einstein's normal thought of relativity. the subjects lined contain geometric formula of exact relativity, the primary of equivalence, Einstein's box equation and its spherical-symmetric answer, in addition to cosmology. An emphasis is put on actual examples and straightforward functions with no the entire tensor gear. It starts via reading the physics of the equivalence precept and appears at the way it encouraged Einstein's concept of curved spacetime because the gravitational box. At a extra mathematically obtainable point, it presents a metric description of a warped area, permitting the reader to review many fascinating phenomena resembling gravitational time dilation, GPS operation, gentle deflection, precession of Mercury's perihelion, and black holes. quite a few sleek themes in cosmology are mentioned from primordial inflation and cosmic microwave historical past to the darkish strength that propels an accelerating universe.

Building on Cheng's past publication, 'Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology: A simple Introduction', this article has been adapted to the complex scholar. It concentrates at the center components of the topic making it appropriate for a one-semester path on the undergraduate point. it may well additionally function an obtainable advent of common relativity and cosmology for these readers who are looking to research the topic all alone. the right kind tensor formula of Einstein's box equation is gifted in an appendix bankruptcy for these wishing to glimpse additional on the mathematical details.

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**Example text**

41), and the second is zero by conservation of relativistic energy γ mc2 . There are three equations for momentum and one for energy conservation. They can be written compactly in terms of 4-momenta: pμA + pμB = pμC + pμD . 45) Being a tensor equation (with every term a 4-vector), it is manifestly covariant; and these relations are valid in every inertial frame. 14 We will use the same criteria when we discuss particle energy and momentum in general relativity. Massless particles always travel at speed c When m = 0, we can no longer define 4-velocity as x˙ μ , because the concept of proper time does not apply (see the discussion below); thus the 4-momentum cannot be pμ = m˙xμ .

36). 39) becomes E = |p|c. 46) 14 Here, the 3-momentum p = γ mu reduces to mu in the nonrelativistic limit. 42 Special Relativity: Flat Spacetime 15 Gravitons are the quanta of the gravitational field, just as photons are the quanta of the electromagnetic field. They are massless, since they are the transmitters of long-range forces. 38), we obtain the well-known result that massless particles such as photons and gravitons15 always travel at the speed of light, v = c. Hence there is no rest frame for massless particles.

You are now asked to demonstrate this directly without any detailed Lorentz transformation calculations. Hint: From the vanishing invariant interval for light, ds 2 = ds2 = 0, and the fact that ds and ds are infinitesimals of the same order, you can argue that the general intervals (not just for light) measured in two relative frames must be proportional to each other: ds 2 = P ds2 , where P must be constant in space and time. From this, you can then show that the proportionality v –v factor (which in principle can be velocity-dependent) must be the identity, P = 1, by considering three frames O → O → O , where the symbols above the arrows indicate the relative velocities.