By Sandra Dawson (auth.)

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If activities are carefully defined and prescribed, then administrative and technological controls, backed up by hierarchical control, are usually important aspects of the job. Hence clerical workers who have routinely to type, fill in and file pro formas, or manufacturing operatives who have routinely to operate or mind repetitive machines, have their activities externally defined and controlled. Sometimes, however, it is not administratively or technologically possible to programme exactly how something is to be done, or else such measures are felt to be unacceptable to those involved.

If he is given a task to do and promised a high salary and promotion, then he will expend effort on doing the work to the extent that he believes: 1. good performance in his job will be noted and will lead to increased salary and promotion; 2. increased salary and promotion will satisfy his needs for financial security and social status. In these terms we are motivated by our expectations about the likelihood of a particular set of behaviours leading to certain outcomes. The key points of motivation are not therefore simply the nature of goals but how they can be best achieved.

Increased specialisation requires increased co-ordination and increased costs. Inflexibility and rigidity lead employees to focus on their own sub-group goals, to pay little attention to objectives of others and to make the organisation extremely resistant to change. The unnecessary simplification of tasks is said to lose the opportunities offered in the array of resources and ideals held by employees, while monotony and boredom lead to dissatisfaction, which in turn may (if expectations are disappointed) lead to absenteeism, lateness, a drop in productivity, etc.

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