By Donald R. Griffin

"Animal Minds tackles a question that's either interesting and demanding. the overpowering physique of facts that Donald Griffin has assembled places past average doubt the case for spotting that many non-human animals . . . are able to even more refined considering than many scientists were ready to believe."--Peter Singer, writer of Animal Liberation.

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Despite renewed interest in animal cognition, the scientists who are willing to venture into this difficult area have tended to cling tightly to the security blanket of conventional reductionism. Although most philosophers have long since abandoned logical positivism, and cognitive psychologists now reject the negative dogmatism of the strict behaviorists, students of animal behavior are still severely constrained by a guilty feeling that it is unscientific to inquire about subjective feelings and conscious thoughts (Colgan 1989; Heyes 1987; Latto 1986; Snowdon 1991; and Yoerg and Kamil 1991).

5 em holes drilled 2 em deep into their tops; and "barkies," consisting of small strips of masking tape stuck on trunks of artificial "trees" constructed from wooden dowels. Under the tape there might be a mealworm forming a small bump. The milkies were designed to simulate milk bottles, which wild tits had learned some years earlier to open by tearing off the thin metal foil used to cover their tops, as discussed below. The first three types of container were filled with sawdust or bits of paper and the openings were covered with masking tape.

At this time they were gathering food only for themselves, but were probably also putting on weight in preparation for the nesting season that would follow in a few weeks. They were easily observed because the grass was heavily grazed by cattle and horses, and the numerous dung pats provided food for the flies on which the wagtails fed. Only one bird at a time fed on insects from a single dung pat, but small groups often hunted at the pools where sev- Finding Food 31 eral kinds of aquatic insects were abundant.

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