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Published via the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic examine Series.

The four million to twenty million sq. kilometers of sea ice that surrounds the Antarctic continent represents one of many biggest and so much dynamic ecosystems on the earth. This sea ice matrix presents a habitat for a large choice of organisms, a few of which dwell their whole lives in the ice whereas others are just occasional viewers. huge grazers, comparable to copepods and krill which come to the ocean ice to feed, characterize very important hyperlinks among sea ice biota and the pelagic surroundings. regrettably, a result of inherent hassle of sampling such an atmosphere, many elements of this designated habitat are nonetheless poorly understood. the aim of this quantity is to provide new information regarding this environment in order that its position in the Antarctic food-web (and as a sink for carbon dioxide) and its susceptibility to environmental adjustments could be higher understood.


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Extra info for Antarctic Sea Ice: Biological Processes, Interactions and Variability (Antarctic Research Series) (1998-02-04)

Example text

In February,spatiallyaveragedratesof production in first-yearseaice exceededthosein multi-yearice; however,due to the continuedmelting of first-year sea ice, the bulk of the biogeniccarbonwas beingproduced in multi-year ice. 7 Tg C yr'l for Antarctic sea ice is about4% of the annual biogeniccarbonproduction in the SouthernOcean. : PRIMARY PRODUCTION al, 1992; Smith and Nelson, 1986] and includes the highly productivemarginalice zones. Furthermore,it is IN ANTARCTIC PACK ICE 33 quantitativelyand have not yet been incorporatedinto the model.

1 Spectral photoadaptation parameter. Algal productivityin the model is controlledto a large degree by the value of Ik', which is scaledto simulatephotoacclimationto changesin ambientirradiance(Figure 5C). The rationale is that under light limiting conditions,algae will modulate their spectrallycorrectedphotosynthetic efficiency (c• and their carbonassimilationrate (Pm) such that I•' (--Pm/Ot')is roughly equivalent to the averageirradiance(PUR) experiencedat a given depth. However, thereappears tobeanupperandlowerlimitto Fig.

All ice typeshave a variable thicknesssnow cover (hs), an infiltrationlayer and an internalfreeboardlayer. Algae only grow within the infiltrationand the freeboardlayer. Brine volume andice permeabilitychangeas a functionof temperature. Nutrient flux is a function of whether the ice surface is flooded from SSM/I data which cover is lowest in the eastern Weddell indicate that snow Sea in November (Plate1). The differencesin the two distributions is not surprising, however. The Central Limit Theorem states that the sampling distribution of the (a function of icethickness andsnow mass) andtheseaice -meanapproaches thenormaldistribution asthesample permeability.

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